The Reformation
King Philip's War

Two groups, united by a common ancestry and yet divided in their religious views, settled Massachusetts. Arriving first were the Pilgrims, a group of separatists. Most of these Pilgrims had sought religious refuge in Holland before coming to the New World. The Pilgrims were primarily common people with little education or wealth. About ten years after the Pilgrims, the Puritans arrived. While the separatists desired to separate themselves from the Church of England, the Puritans sought to purify the existing Church of England through reforming the church from within, while remaining loyal to the Church of England itself. The Puritans established the Congregationalist sect, as well as the Baptist, the Methodist and to an extent the Presbyterian. Many of the Puritans were men of eduation and fortune and included members of Parliament and clergymen. Many of the Puritans arrived in groups, rather than families, following the ministers of their congregations.

Leading the Pilgrims was William Brewster, a graduate of Cambridge University, who had, along with some of his followers, fled to Holland and later fled Holland along with his followers to the colony of Virginia. Three days from port, the Mayflower's sister ship, the Speedwell, was forced to return to England. In a compromise between the passengers of the Mayflower and those of the Speedwell, known as the Mayflower Compact, the voyage continued by "fifty saints and fifty others". In the midst of the voyage, it became evident that the captain of the Mayflower was not sailing southerly enough to land in Virginia. The captain then advised Brewster of their imminent landfall, advising them that landing in Virginia was not in their best interests and that it would be best for them to land in Plymouth, yet unsettled.

First recorded in 1609, the Mayflower was originally a merchant ship travelling to Baltic ports, especially Norway at which time it was owned by Christopher Nichols, Richard Child, Thomas Short and Christopher Jones. At the time, the ship was about 180 tons and its home port was Harwich. During its merchant days, the ship transported tar, lumber and fish. It may have also been involved in some Greenland whaling. Later, the Mayflower was used to transport Mediterranean wine and spices.

In 1620, the Mayflower was hired by Thomas Weston who was assisted by John Carver and Robert Cushman, along with the Speedwell to undertake a voyage carrying colonists to Northern Virginia. It was Captain Christopher Jones who carried the Pilgrims to New England in 1620, anchoring off the tip of Cape Cod 11 Nov 1620. The Mayflower remained anchored off Cape Cod during the first winter, as the colonists used the ship to shield them from the harsh winter. On 5 April 1621, the Mayflower set sail for home, arriving 6 May 1621. About half of the ship's crew died during the winter, along with the colonists. The Mayflower made a few short runs to Spain, Ireland and France. Shortly thereafter, Captain Christopher Jones died and was buried 5 Mar 1621/22 in Rotherhithe, England. For two years the Mayflower remained at dock before being appraised for probate. At that time, the ship was not in good condition and was, in the appraisal, considered to be "in ruins".

While yet in England, the future governor of Massachusetts, John Carver, had been elected, largely due to the fortune Carver had spent arranging for the trip. Carver served as governor until his death, whereupon he was succeeded by William Bradford. Bradford was a well educated man, fluent in Dutch, French, Latin and Hebrew.

In England, Puritanism had increased rapidly during the later years of James I and continuing into the reign of Charles I. Courtier William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury was a major force in the persecution of dissenters. A man of remarkable energy, Laud was inexhaustible in his rigid support of the law and of the King.

In England, with Bishop Laud as the King's right hand man, conformity was paramount as those opposing the Church of England were silenced, sermons forbidden and ministers not adhering to the strict Church were held suspect. In France, Cardinal Richelieu crushed the French Huguenots.

In the spring of 1629, a crisis arose when King Charles ruled without the essentially Puritan Parliament. Parliament, on 2 March, made three resolutions declaring every supporter of High Church and royal perogative a capital enemy. The Royal Guard carried the Puritan Parliament members to the tower, where they were held for eleven years, as King Charles ruled without the Parliament.

In 1629, Puritain Reverends Higginson, Skelton and Bright (silenced ministers in England) arrived in Naumkeag (Salem), MA. Higginson arrived in the ship Talbot and is known as the father and pattern of the New England clergy. Higginson was deprived of his parish in Leicester for nonconformity and received the invitation to accompany emigrants as a call from heaven. Two other ministers were included as missionaries to the Indians. The party also included six shipwrights, an experienced surveyor, who, along with Samuel Sharpe, master gunner of ordinance, was to drill the company at appointed intervals. A number of horses, cattle and goats were included aboard the ship. Landing at the end of June 1629, the group of two hundred landed in Salem, MA. Mathew Cradock, governor of the company, in July 1629, proposed to transfer the government of the company to the emigrants leading several persons of quality, wealthy commoners and zealous Puritans to consider emigration. Twelve men of large fortunes, including John Winthrop, Thomas Dudley, Isaac Johnson and Richard Saltonstall offered to emigrate provided that the governenment would be transferred to America.

On 28 Mar 1631, Governor Dudley wrote:

"The next year, 1629, we sent divers ships over, with about three hundred people.…Our four ships which set out in April [1630] arrived here in June and July, where we found the Colony in a sad and unexpected condition, above eighty of them being dead the winter before; and many of those alive weak and sick…the remainder of a hundred and eighty servants we had the two years before sent over coming to us for victuals to sustain them, we found ourselves wholly unable to feed them…many died weekly, yea, almost daily…not much less than a hundred, (some think many more) partly out of dislike of our government,…returned back again [to England].…Others also, afterwards hearing of men of their own disposition, which were planted at Pascataway, went from us to them.…And of the people who came over with us, from the time of their setting sail from England in April, 1630, until December following, there died by estimation about two hundred at the least.…I should also have remembered, how the half of our cows and almost all our mares and goats, sent us out of England, died at sea in their passage hither.…It may be said of us almost as of the Egyptians, that there is not a house where there is not one dead, and in some houses many."

John Winthrop, a Puritan, lost his attorneyship at the Court of Wards and Liveries. For some time, Puritans of Lincolnshire sought refuge in New England At the center of this group was Tattershall, seat of the Earl of Lincoln. Included in this group was: John Humphrey, Master John White of Dorchester, Thomas Leverett and Richard Bellingham. Several were members of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay. Together they came up with the idea of transfering the charter and the government of the Company to New England, making it the framework of a Puritan Commonwealth.

The Massachusetts Bay Company was a joint-stock corporation with stockholders who chose the president and board of directors. Led by John Winthrop, a group of Puritans, sought to purchase the bankrupt Massachusetts Bay Colony, which they accomplished 26 Aug 1629 at Cambridge, England, signing a compact which, along with the Charter, is the basis of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

On 7 April 1630, Winthrop and his group left for New England aboard the flagship, Arabella, one of eleven ships carrying some 700 passengers bound for New England. The group included the Lady Arabella Johnson along with her husband, Isaac Johnson and also, George Phillips (first minister of Watertown), Sir Richard Saltonstall, Thomas Dudley, Simon and Anne Bradstreet, William Pynchon and others, making port 14th June at Beverly Harbor, Newtown. John Winthrop's fleet would herald the first mass exodus of Puritans from England. During the next ten years, some 20,000 persons, mostly from England, would immigrate to Massachusetts, most of them Puritans. After 1640, there was almost no further immigration into Massachusetts. Further growth within the colony was due to Biblical instruction, "Go forth and multiply". Thereafter, the population in New England doubled about every twenty-eight years.

John Winthrop would lead the Puritans until his death in 1649. During the first year after landing, Winthrop used his own personal wealth to feed many of his followers. It has been estimated that prior to Winthrop's arrival some 500 or settlers lived in Massachusetts. These settlers were confined to the Plymouth Rock area and included the advance arrival of the Puritans between 1624 and 1629. The arrival of the Winthrop fleet increased the 500 to 1,500, of which 200 died during the first winter and spring and 200 returned to England. By 1640 some 16,000 to 26,000 immigrants had arrived from England.

Isaac Johnson, one of the richest men in the county of Lincoln, had married Lady Arabella Fynes, sister of Theophilus Fynes, Earl of Lincoln, who himself had married a sister of the Lord of Say and Sele. These two noblemen denounced King Charles for imposing a forces loan without the grant of Parliament. Lord Say and Sele, who himself had commanded a Parliamentarian regiment during England's Civil War, announced he would rather lose half of his estate rather than risk the impoverishment of his posterity by a loan that had not been sanctioned by the Parliament. Lord Lincoln distributed an Abridgement of Statutes, probably aided by Thomas Dudley. This action brought down upon Lord Lincoln, the wrath of the King; the abridgement suppressed. A proclomation was issued for the apprehension of John Holland, Steward to the earl and Robert Blow, the kitchen clerk and also a groom in the household ot the Lord Lincoln. The Earl was imprisoned in the Tower, where he remained for some years.

Many of those Puritans separated from the main group, founding Roxbury, Lynn, Medford, Cambridge and Watertown. Dudley recorded that some two hundred died the first year in New England.

A disagreement between Dudley and Winthrop arose when Winthrop abandoned Newtown, relocating in Boston. Dudley moved to Ipswich but later settled in Roxbury.

In 1623, the Dorchester Company (dissolved in 1626), established a colony at Cape Ann, near Gloucester. Roger Conant, superintendent of affairs for the New England Company moved to Naumkeag (present Salem). He convinced a number of men to conribute £3,000 to the company. Conant informed Rev. White, organizer of the company, of the success of the settlement. A meeting was held in which Roger Conant along with John Woodbury, John Balch and Peter Palfrey were all in favor of moving to Virginia. Rev. White obtained a patent giving six men, Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John Young, John Humphrey, Thomas Southcate, John Endicott and Sam Whitcomb a tract of land three miles north of the Merrimac.


John Winthrop and a small number of immigrants had arrived at Naumkeag and from there moved to Mishawum (Charlestown) and in 1630 removed to Boston, where Winthrop was made governor. At this time there were about five hundred colonists, most having come from Dorchester, England.

In May of 1630, two vessels containing colonists arrived, one in Salem and the other at Nantasket. Of the five hundred persons who had followed John Winthrop to Boston, two hundred had died by 1632. Another one hundred returned to England. In 1633, Thomas Leverett, John Cotton, Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone arrived and were to greatly help bring the colony together. In 1634, Winthrop's council discovered a deceit played upon them by Winthrop when they learned that they were by the Massachusetts Bay Colony Charter equals and of equivalent power with the same status as free men of England. Winthrop was persuaded to resign and an election was held in which Thomas Dudley was elected governor. Notably a church was organized in Salem, which disregarded the style of service of the Church of England.

Four ships sailed from England and following a stormy passage, the ship Arabella came within sight of Cape Anne. In 1634 Hingham was settled; in 1635 Newbury, dedham and Concord incorporated and by 1643 Salisbury, Lynn, North Chelsea, Rowley, Sudbury, Braintree, Woburn, Gloucester, Haverhill, Wenham and Hull were incorporated. Springfield incorporated in 1636 and with that four counties were established: Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex and Old Norfolk. Each county contained eight towns but for Norfolk, which had six.

In 1636, John Harvard, a colonist in Charlestown, died one year following his immigration. He donated one half of his land for the establishment of a college and in 1636 Harvard was founded, with the arrival of the first students in 1638. The Colony, again under the leadership of John Winthrop, was granted a charter for the college. In 1643 about 25,000 persons inhabited New England of which about 18,000 lived in Massachusetts. Along with the colonists were four native American tribes: the Pequots, Narragonsetts, Wampanogs and the Mohawks. Many tribes existed in New England: Mecadacut, Segocket, Pemmaquid, Nasconsus, Sagadahock, Aumugheawgen, Kennabeca and Abneki.

The county of Essex was incorporated in 1643 with the towns of Salem, Lynn, Enon, Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, Gloucester and Cochichewic. The Massachusetts Bay Colony had settlements which extended north of Essex County to Beverly, Manchester, Marblehead, Danvers, Topsfield, Wenham and part of Lynn. The rivers provided early transportation for the colonists. Horseback was considered a poor means of travel. Early roads were pathways along cornfields and were just wide enough for a single horse. Bridle paths were eventually created and later highways, the first of which ran from Boston to Salem through Saugus.

We see where our ancestors become freemen. In order to become a freeman, a person was required to become a member of a congregational church. The status of freeman was performed by the General Court of the colony and by quarterly courts of the counties. Only freemen could hold offices or vote or even dispose of land. Upon becoming a freeman, a person took the Freeman's Oath in which the individual admitted himself to be subject to the government and swore by God's name that he would be true and faithful to God and to reveal any who do or plot evil. Therefore, rather than having a basis in property or education, the condition of freemanship was made on religious qualifications. The goal of the Puritans was to establish a religious community with individual freedom that was limited to those sharing the same religious convictions.

In 1640, Charles I called Parliament together for the first time in eleven years and thereby opened the possibility of major religious and political changes in England. Shortly thereafter, with England on the verge of Civil War, emigration was discouraged and by 1650 Charles I had been executed by Cromwell. After 1640, emigration to New England dwindled to a mere trickle, as the impact of Puritanism in England diminished.

Puritan Ancestors

Thomas Holbrook

Immigrated with his wife, Jane Powys about 20 Mar 1634/35 with Reverend Joseph Hull's Company aboard the Marygold. He originated in Broadway, Somerset, England and settled in Weymouth, MA. He became a freeman of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in May of 1645. Thomas was one of the grantees of Rehoboth.

Thomas Holbrook

Immigrant from England to Massachusetts along with his parents (above), settling in Braintree in 1653. Married Joanna Kingman in 1650.

Deacon Peter Holbrook

Peter was the son of Thomas II and Joanna Kingman. Peter settled in Mendon, Worcester, MA along with his wife, Alice Godfrey, daughter of Richard Godfrey and Jane Turner. Peter was an important man in his time.

Henry Kingman

Born about 1595 in Frome, Selwood, England or possibly in Wales, Henry immigrated to Plymouth Colony in Reverend Joseph Hull's Company along with his wife, Joanna or Joan possibly surnamed Drake, perhaps on the Hopewell 7 Jun 1635 and settled in Weymouth, MA.


Francis Godfrey

Born in Bath, Somerset, England about 1600, Francis married 1621 Elizabeth (perhaps surnamed Hall). He had a grant of land in 1638 in Duxbury, Plymouth, MA where he signed his will 29 Oct 1666, dying in 1669. Francis was a carpenter and bridge builder. Francis served in a company commanded by Captain Myles Standish. It is believed that Francis is descended from the Duke of Boullon, a Crusader.

Benjamin Albee

Benjamin was a carpenter, miller and land surveyor. He was in Boston in 1639 and in Braintree the following year. He moved to Medfield where he became a selectman and eventually settled in Mendon. Benjamin became a freeman 18 May 1642. In Mendon, he built a corn mill, the first water powered mill for grinding grain in that region. He served as selectman in 1651 and commissioner in 1659. In 1675, during King Philip's War, Mendon was burned. Benjamin's corn mill was also burned. Benjamin and his family fled with other town members eastward and later returned to Medfield, where he died. Originally, Mendon was known as Squinsshepauke. Benjamin married Hannah (perhaps surnamed Miller).

James Albee

James was probably born in Braintree between 1641-1650. He was living 26 Mar 1717 when he made a deed of land as a gift to his daughter, Lydia and her husband. James married 18 Oct 1671 to Hannah Cook in Medfield. James held large land holdings and was a man of social influence in his time. He inherited his father's lands in Mendon.

Walter Cook

Walter immigrated, along with his brothers and settled in Massachusetts. In 1643, we find him in Weymouth where he became a freeman in 1653. In 1663/64, he moved with his children to Mendon, along with his brothers. Walter held land in Milford, Belingham, Wrentham and on the Rhode Island border. He first married Experience, perhaps the daughter of Thomas Holbrook. He married secondly to Catherine (perhaps surnamed Brenton and perhaps the widow of George Aldrich). Walter is found as one of the original proprietors of Quinshipaug Plantation. Very active in church and state affairs, Walter received many land grants.

Reverend Ralph Wheelock

Ralph graduated from Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts in 1637 along with his wife, Rebecca Clark and located hmself in Medfield and is considered the founder of Medfield. He was also instrumental in the founding of Dedham. Though he never had his own ministry, he preached frequently. His interests were directed towards teaching and he was the first headmaster of the first public school in Dedham (probably the first in the colonies). Ralph was instrumental in raising funds for the first college in America, Harvard.

Benjamin Wheelock

Born in Dedham, Benjamin moved with his family to Medfield in 1651 where he was later joined by his brother, Gershom and his father, Ralph. About 1688, he moved to Mendon, where he was one of the founders of that town. Benjamin served as a "Tything Man" in 1693, a job that entailed presenting all idle and disorderly persons, profane swearers and cursors, Sabbath-breakers and disorderly persons for punishment. Benjamin served as constable in 1696 and in 1706 he acquired possession of the Benjamin Albee corn mill, which he deeded to his sons Obediah and Benjamin in 1713. In 1719, the mill was deeded to Josiah Wood. Benjamin married first Elizabeth Bullen, who died in 1669. It is uncertain whom Benjamin married as his second wife but she was perhaps Elizabeth French, widow of John Thayer.

Deacon Samuel Bullen

Samuel was born in England in 1622 and died in Medfield 16 Jan 1691/92. He married Mary Morse 10 Aug 1641 in Medfield and settled in Watertown. In 1641, Samuel took the Freeman's Oath. Benjamin was one of the first settlers of Medfield and was the first tenant on Captain Hull's farm. His home and buildings were burned by Indians before 1679 when Samuel lived for a time with Mary's brother, Daniel Morse in Sherborn. In 1679, Samuel petitioned for losses in the Indian devastation and returned to Medfield. His was the first gravestone erected at Medfield. "In memory of Deacon Samuel Bullen who died January 1692 aged 70 years. He was the first European who settled in this town with a family." The stone was erected by his descendants. Samuel and his wife, Mary are ancestors of US Presidents Calvin Coolidge, William Howard Taft, Richard Milhouse Nixon, poet Emily Dickinson, and adventurer James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickock.

Samuel Morse

Samuel was born in 1576 in Boxted, England. He married 29 Jun 1602 to Elizabeth Jasper in 1602 in Suffolk, England. Samuel died in Medfield 5 Dec 1654. Samuel was the son of Reverend Thomas Morse and Elizabeth or Margaret King of Foxearth, Essex, England. Samuel signed the Covenant of Dedham in 1636. Samuel sailed from London to New England aboard the Increase along with his wife and son Joseph and granddaughter, Elizabeth. His will was dated 2 Dec 1654. A monument was erected in Medfield by his descendants, along with descendants of other Puritans in 1858 "To the memory of 7 puritans who emigrated from England to America in 1635 to 1639". Samuel was one of the original of nineteen settlers in Dedham in 1635. He later moved to Medfield. Samuel was a member of First Church at Dedham. He became a freeman 8 Oct 1640.

Reverend John Young

Born about 1598 in England, John was the son of the Reverend Christopher Young of Southwold, Suffolk, England. John's first wife was Joan Herrington, whom he married 25 Jul 1622 in Southwold, England. This Joan probably died before 1630. John immigrated in 1637 aboard the Mary Anne of Yarmouth. His wife, Joan, probably his second wife, Joan Harris, widow of Richard Palgrave, along with six children, accompanied him. Though his application stated, "This man was forbyden passage, by the Commission and went not from Yarmouth," we find him in Salem three months later. Joan Harris died before 1639 when John married Mary Warren, daughter of Thomas Warren. The family remained in Salem until 1640-41 when he removed to Southold, Long Island, where he died in 1672. John served as pastor of Southold, MA from 1640-1672.

Col. John Young II

John, born 1624 in Southwold, England, immigrated with his father in 1637. John placed the Tudor Trevor Coat of Arms on his will in 1697. This line is traceable to Wales through the Yonges of Brynyorken, descending from Henry Tudor, the Welshman who, leading a Welsh army, defeated and slew Richard III on Bosworth Field and became Henry VII. John married Abigail Howland of Duxbury, England on 13 Dec 1648 in Plymouth, MA. John died 28 Jan 1690/91 in Eastham.

Henry Howland

Henry was born about 1603 in Fernstanton, England. He was apprenticed to Humphrey, his brother, in London in 1623. He married Mary (perhaps surnamed Newland) about 1628. On 25 Mar 1633, he was first taxed in Plymouth, MA. In 1633, we find Henry in Duxbury. On March of 1636 he was made a Freeman. He was fined 1 May 1660 and again on 2 Oct 1660 for entertaining Quakers in his home. Henry died in Duxbury 1 Jan 1669/70.

Robert Davis

Robert was born about 1619 in England. He married Ann. Her surname is unknown. Robert's will is dated 14 Apr 1688 and Robert died probably 29 Jun 1693 in Barnstable, MA, bequeathing to his wife Ann and children.

Thomas Oldham

Thomas was born in Derbyshire in 1624. In 1643, he was in Duxbury, MA. He was perhaps the youth that came from London in 1635 on the Elizabeth and Ann. He may have been the brother of John Oldham, his fellow passenger. Thomas married 20 Nov 1656 Mary Wetheral, daughter of Reverend William Wetheral. Thomas died 7 Mar 1710/11 in Scituate, MA.

Reverend William Wetheral

William was a Puritan in England. He was educated at Cambridge, obtaining a BA 1626 and a MA 1627. He was shown to be from York. Licensed as a Cure of Souls, William was also a teacher at Boughton, England and later taught at Maidstone in England. William was cited for teaching the catechisms of William Perkins, a well-known Puritan. Shortly thereafter, William, his wife, Mary Fisher, and children, along with a servant, Ann Richards, boarded the ship Hercules for New England, arriving 1635. William briefly settled at Charlestown, establishing the first grammar school there before moving to Newtowne (Cambridge), MA and by 1638 to Duxbury, MA where church beliefs were similar to those he espoused in England. He later moved to Scituate, where he had been invited as minister of the 2d Church of Scituate 2 Sep 1645, which position he would hold until his death 9 Apr 1683/84.

Thomas Oldham

Thomas was born 30 Oct 1660 in Scituate, MA. He married Mercy Sproat/ Sprout 27 Jun 1683. He died in Scituate 21 Feb 1733/34. Thomas was the son of Thomas Oldham and Mary Wetheral.

Robert Sproat/ Sprout

Robert was born in 1634 in Scotland. He married Elizabeth Samson/ Sampson, daughter of Henry Samson about 1661 in MA. Robert was indentured to Walter Briggs prior to 1658, when he complained to the court that his former master was keeping the indenture document from him to avoid complying with his obligations. Robert arrived in New England about 20 years after the first Pilgrims arrived. Emigrating from Scotland, Robert worked to pay for his passage. Robert settled in Scituate. Robert's will, recorded in Plymouth County Probate Records lists his seven children.

Henry Samson/ Sampson

Henry was born about 1603 in Henlow, England. Henry, then aged 16, arrived Plymouth, MA on the Mayflower 11 Nov 1620 after a two month voyage. Henry traveled with his aunt and uncle, Edward Tilley and his wife, Ann Cooper. Henry was one of the fifty-one survivors of the first winter, fifty-one others having perished. Henry became a freeman of Plymouth in 1637. Henry moved to Duxbury where, In 1635/36, he married Ann Plummer, daughter of Benjamin Plummer and Mary Thomas. Henry's will was inventoried 24 Feb 1684/85 and valued at £106. Henry died between 24 Dec 1684 (date of his will) and 24 Feb 1685 (date his will was probated), leaving nine children. It is also stated that Henry died on the date of his will, 24 Dec 1685. His will does not mention his wife. Henry's son, Caleb married Mercy Standish, daughter of Miles Standish. Henry is mentioned by Governor Bradford who, in 1650 says, "the youth Henrey Samson is still liveing and is maried, and hath 7 children." Henry would later have sons, Stephen and Caleb.

Governor Thomas Dudley

Thomas was born 12 Oct 1576 at Yardley-Hastings, England, only son of Captain Roger Dudley and Susanna Thorne. His father, Roger Dudley, was a contemporary of Robert Dudley, favorite of Queen Elizabeth and served as one of his soldiers. Roger was slain at the Battle of Ivery 14 Mar 1590, when Thomas was only fourteen years of age. Thomas's mother, Susanna Thorne, had died prior to his father's death, leaving Thomas and his young sister as orphans. Thomas was raised as a page in the family of Lord Compton, Earl of Northampton. In 1597, Thomas was a volunteer when a force was raised to aid Henry of Navarre. He was then given a captain's commission and assigned to Amiens in Picardy, though peace was signed before he saw service. He became a clerk for a kinsman Sir Judge Augustine Nichol, a Justice of the Common Pleas. Thomas resigned in 1627 to move to Boston, England, where Rev. John Cotton was preaching. Thomas became interested in New England in 1627 and in 1628, Dudley, along with other Puritans recieved a patent from the king for a plantation. Along with Winthrop and a party of four ships, Thomas sailed for America and was appointed deputy governor of the colony. Arriving on the flagship, Arabella, 12 Jun 1630, Thomas settled at Newtown (now Cambridge). He later moved to Ipswich. Thomas was elected governor, the first elected governor of the people in an a general election in May 1634. He was appointed one of twelve men to establish Harvard College in 1636. In 1644, Thomas was sergeant-major-general of the colony, an office he held for four years. Thomas died at Roxbury 31 Jul 1653. Cotton Mather said of him, "He was a man of sincere piety, exact justice, hospitality to strangers and liberality to the poor." His will is dated 26 Apr 1652 and was proven 15 Aug 1643. Thomas married in England to Dorothy Yorke, daughter of yeoman, Edmond Yorke of Cotton End. who died 27 Dec 1643 at Roxbury. Thomas then married 14 Apr 1644 Catherine Hackburn (widow of Samuel Hackburn). Though 54 years of age when landing in New England, Thomas enjoyed a long public career, spending the remainder of his life in public office. Four times elected governor and thirteen times deputy-governor, Thomas was, when not serving in these offices, was found in the House as an Assistant. In 1631, Thomas, along with Simon Bradstreet, founded Cambridge, though Thomas remained in Cambridge (now part of Boston). Thomas was a strict Puritan, clashing several times with other leaders of the colony. He was known to be inflexible in his views. Thomas was one of four principal founders of the First Church at Boston. Thomas' integrity was unimpeachable and his dedication to public interest, though marked by his religion, was singularly focused. "He was positive, dogmatic, austere, prejudiced, unlovable." He was a firm believer in autocracy, opposing popular government. Thomas became one of the largest landholders in Roxbury. His property was valued at £1,560 at the time of his death. His funeral included the most distinguished of citizens as pall bearers and was noted by the clergy in large numbers. Muffled drums and reversed arms were performed by the military at his funeral. He was buried in Roxbury, near his home. His epitaph, written by Rev. Ezekiel Rogers reads:

In books a Prodigal they say;
A table talker rich in sense;
And witty without wits pretense;
An able champion in debate;
Whose words lacked number but not weight;
Both Catholic and Christian too;
A soldier timely, tried and true;
Condemned to share the common doom;
Reposes here in Dudley's tomb;

Reverend Samuel Dudley

Samuel Dudley, son of Thomas Dudley was born about 1610 in England and was probably educated in the Puritan denomination. When he was twenty, Samuel came to New England along with his father. He married in 1632/33 Mary, daughter of Governor Winthrop. His two sons by this marriage lived with their grandfather, Thomas and died young. About 1635, Samuel moved to Ipswich from Cambridge. In 1643, his wife, Mary, died and Samuel married Mary Byley or Bayley of Salisbury, MA. This Mary was the sister of Henry Bayley of Salisbury, England. Samuel held several town offices and in March 1648, Samuel was appointed associate judge at Salisbury. He became minister for Exeter, NH in 1650, having ministered in Portsmouth, NH in 1649. His second wife, Mary Bayley died about 1651 in Exeter. He then married Elizabeth (possibly surnamed Smith). Samuel had a large family and never became as wealthy as his father. At the age of 73, on 10 Feb 1683, Samuel died at Exeter, having served as minister of Exeter since 1651. Samuel died without making a will. His estate was administered by his son, Theophilus and the land was divided among his children. Samuel's estate was inventoried 10 Feb 1682/83 in the amount of £640








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